1953 The first LSD-clinic opens in England under Dr. Ronald Sandison; leading to the conduction of clinical research in other European countries, with the `psycholytic` model (giving repeated low doses) prevailing. *** `Operation MK-ULTRA` headed by Richard Helms & Dr. Sidney Gottlieb are in charge use POW from Korea as Artichoke-test subject; the agency tries to purchase 10 kilograms of LSD (100,000,000 doses) from Sandoz for $240,000. The CIA receives 100 grams a week. It secretly funds the work of American researchers and finances the `Josiah Macy conferences` where the LSD and mescaline research is presented. Over the next 12 years MK-ULTRA runs 149 separate LSD projects at 154 institutions, frequently they use `dirty tricks` – none of them made public attention; some deaths and many mental breakdowns were the result. *** Army Bacteriologist and CIA member Frank Olson dies in Front of New Yorks Pennsylvania Hotel after a covered CIA assassination. *** Aldous Huxley takes mescaline, provided by Humphry Osmond in Los Angeles and finds it not unlike a state of gratuitous grace. *** With the `magic mushrooms` Robert Gordon Wasson re-discovers remains of the ancient mexican plant-therapeutic science and mushroom cults.

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